Advanced Placement(AP) is a program in the United States and Canada created by the College Board which offers college-level curricula and exams to students. American universities and colleges may offer placement and course credit to college students who attain high results on the tests. The AP curriculum for each of the several subjects is done for the school Board with a panel of experts and college-level teachers in that field of examine. For a high school graduation course to offer the designation, the course must be audited by the College Plank to ascertain it satisfies the AP programs. If the training course is approved, the school may use the AP status and the program will be publicly listed on the AP Course Journal. 
History [ modify ]
After the end of World War II, the Ford Foundation create a fund that supported committees studying education.  This program, which was in that case referred to as the “Kenyon Plan”,  begun and initiated at Kenyon College in Gambier, Kentkucky, by the then-college pres > The other committee, the Committee on Admission with Advanced Standing up, developed and implemented the plan to choose a curriculum. A pilot program was manage in 1952 which protected eleven disciplines. In the 1955-56 school yr, it was country wide implemented in ten subject matter: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, English, Record, French, German born, Spanish, and Latin.
The faculty Board, a nonprofit organization  located in New York City, features run the AP system since 1955.  From 1965 to 1989, Harlan Hanson was your director with the Advanced Position Program.  It develops and maintains gu > These activities happen to be funded through fees necessary to take the AP exams.
5 years ago, over a million students overtook two million Advanced Positioning examinations.  Many high schools in the us offer AP courses,  though the University Board enables any college student to take virtually any examination regardless of participation in its respective program.  Consequently , home-schooled pupils and college students from schools that do not offer AP courses offer an equal chance to take AP exams.
As of the 2015 testing time, exams cost $91 each,  though the cost may be subs >
On The spring 3, 2008, the College Table announced that 4 AP courses—French Literature, Latin Literature, Pc Science ABDOMINAL, and German and Culture—would be ceased after the 2008–2009 school yr due to lack of funding.   However , the Italian Language and Culture test was again offered beginning in 2011.
Starting This summer 2013 AP allowed pupils for the first time to both watch and mail their results online. 
The number of AP exams given each year offers seen a steady increase within the last decade. In 2003, a hundred seventy five, 860 English Language and Composition tests were administered. By 2013, this quantity had risen to 476, 277, or a rise of 171%. Such an increase has took place in nearly all AP exams offered, with the AP Psychology test seeing a 281% increase over the past decade. In 2017, the most used AP exam was British Language and Composition with 579, 426 students plus the least taken AP exam was Western Language and Culture with 2, 429 students. 
The AP exams start on the first Monday in May and last ten school days (two weeks).
Rating [ edit ]
AP tests happen to be scored over a 1 to 5 scale the following: 
- five– Extremely well qualified
- 4– Well qualified
- three or more– Qualified
- 2– Possibly qualified
- 1– Zero recommendation
The multiple decision component of the exam is won by computer system, while the free response and essay parts are obtained by skilled Readers on the AP Reading each 06. The ratings on different components will be weighted and combined into a raw Composite resin Score. The main Reader for every single exam then dec >
A few colleges use AP check scores to exempt students from introductory coursework, others use them to place students in higher selected courses, plus some do the two. Each college’s policy differs from the others, but most require a bare minimum score of three or four to receive college credit.  Typically, this kind of appears as a “CR” class on the college or university transcript, even though some colleges and universities is going to award an A grade for any 5 report.  A lot of countries, such as Germany, which in turn not provide general entrance to their colleges and universities for slots of an American high school diploma or degree without preparatory courses will certainly directly declare students that have completed a particular set of AP tests, depending on subject they wish to study there.
In addition , completing AP courses help learners qualify for various kinds of scholarships. According to the University Board, thirty-one mechanical waves are classified according to percent of faculties and colleges look at AP experience when creating scholarship decisions. 
You start with the May 2011 AP Exam administration, the College Table changed the scoring method of AP Tests.   Total results on the multiple-choice section are actually based on the number of questions solved correctly. Details are no longer subtracted for inappropriate answers and, as was the case prior to, no points are granted for unanswered questions. However , scoring requirements have pablo neruda xvii also been increased.
Score confirming [ edit ]
Beginning with the Might 2013 AP Examination Supervision, the College Board launched an Internet-based credit score reporting service.  Pupils can use all their 2013 AP Number or Student Quantity (if one was indicated) along with a College Board Accounts,  to get into current and previous years’ test scores. This technique can also be used to deliver scores to colleges and universities which is why a four-digit institutional code  is assigned.
Exam subsidies [ modify ]
Recognizing which the cost happens to be an impediment to students of limited means, numerous states and municipalities in addition to the College Panel have partially or completely subs >#@@#@!, and the Edmonds University District in suburban Seattle currently subsidizes Advanced Positioning fees of students who enroll in the free institution lunch plan. In addition , search for districts offer free checks to all pupils enrolled in virtually any Advanced Positioning class.
Advanced Placement courses [ edit ]
There are currently 35 courses and exams offered through the AP Program.  A complete set of courses can be found below:
2016–2017 [ edit ]
- AP World Record
- This kind of exam may also undergo the same basic becomes the 2014-2015 United States Background 2015-2016 Western History tests. 
- Shortened qmc (question multiple choice ) section with 55 inquiries, accounting pertaining to 40% from the total test score. They are reduced via 70 inquiries and fifty percent in past years, correspondingly.
- Several short-answer inquiries in place of among the long essays, accounting intended for 20% from the total test score. These questions get a 50-minute writing period.
- Document-based question (DBQ) and the staying long composition now account for 25% and 15% with the exam score respectively. New writing times of 55 minutes and 35 minutes respectively are given instead of the put together 120-minute publishing period for any three works in past exams.
- AP Calculus AB
- Time structure changed
- Addition of L’Hôpital’s rule
- AP Calculus BC
- Addition of limit comparison tests, absolute and conditional affluence, and the switching series.
2018–2019 [ modify ]
- AP United states of america Government and Politics 
- Section I (MCQ) will be prolonged from 62 questions in 45 minutes to 55 inquiries in 85 minutes. It can still count number towards fifty percent of the total exam rating.
- The questions will feature a increased use of cases and stimulus material.
- The number of answer choices for every question will be reduced from five to four.
- Section 2 (FRQ) will incorporate four concerns in 95 minutes (the same amount of query and time as the previous exams). The section as a whole will be well worth 50% from the total examination score. All questions happen to be weighted evenly (each are worth doze. 5% from the total exam score).
- One will be a concept program questions concerning a political scenario.
- One is a quantitative examination and interpretation question having a visual stimulation.
- One will be a SCOTUS Comparison, an evaluation between two different great court instances
- 1 will be a great argumentation article requiring assisting ev >2019-2020 [ change ]
- AP Comparison Government and Politics 
- Section I (Multiple Choice): The quantity of questions will remain the same by 55 concerns, but time for the section will increase coming from 45 minutes to 60 minutes. It will eventually continue to be well worth 50% with the total exam score.
- Each issue will now have 4 possible options instead of 5.
- There will be two text-based options followed by a couple of questions.
- There will be 3 quantitative sources and then a few questions.
- Section II (Free Response) The amount of inquiries will decrease from eight questions to 4 questions. The time will also decrease from 75 minutes to 90 moments. It will keep on being worth 50% of the total exam rating.
- Problem 1: Conceptual Analysis
- Question a couple of: Quantitative Evaluation
- Problem 3: Relative Analysis
- Question four: Argument Essay
- AP World Record 
- The training course will now always be split up in to two several exams:
- AP Community History: Modern day – It will cover community history in the year 1200 CE to the current.
- AP World Background: Ancient – This course will probably be released for a later on, unspecified day.
- Test format will stay the same.
- AP Biology
- AP English Terminology and Composition
Latest exam details [ edit ]
Here are statistics from your 2014 yr of exams showing the quantity of participants, the percentage who received a score of 3 (3) or more, and the typical score. (Students generally need a score of three (3) or higher to get credit or perhaps benefit).
2014 scoring results
||Scored ≥3 (%)
||twenty three, 213
||fifty nine. 6
||installment payments on your 82
||2 . 91
||58. being unfaithful
||2 . 94
||93, one hundred and eighty
||2 . 68
||94. your five
||2 . 96
||55. almost 8
||2 . seventy nine
||2 . 76
||47. three or more
||2 . sixty
||2 . 66
||73. three or more
||3. thirty four
|United States Government
||2 . sixty two
||2 . 64
||a couple of, 331
||three or more. 23
||a couple of, 311
||2 . 89
||2 . fifth there�s 89
|Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism
|Physics C: Technicians
||three or more. 09
|The spanish language Literature
||seventy four. 5
||2 . eighty six
|Studio Skill: 2-D Design and style
||78. your five
|Studio Art: 3-D Style
||67. your five
|Studio Art: Drawing
||a few. 27
||installment payments on your 76
||installment payments on your 66
||5, 135, 962
1 issue to cons > However, a study of University of California program students found that only about 55% to 60% of AP college students took their particular course’s examination. 
Yet , “It has recently become obvious… that these quotes of overall participation costs mask the variability in participation rates across AP examinations. ”  For instance , one study of math and science AP courses revealed that participation rates were 52. seven percent for AP Chemistry, 53. 6% pertaining to AP Physics, 57. 7% for AP Biology, and 77. 4% for AP Calculus.  The largest study on this theme found related participation rates (49. 5% for AP Chemistry, 52. 3% to get AP Physics, 54. five per cent for Biology, and 68. 9% intended for Calculus).  History examinations tend to have a little bit higher contribution rates (57. 9% to get AP Euro History, 58. 5% to get AP Community History, and 62. 8% for AP U. S i9000. History), and 65. 4% of AP English learners took both the AP English Language or AP English Literature exam.  This same examine found that for “core AP topics (i. e., no disciplines or terminology subjects)”, the general test contribution rate was 60. 8%. 
In February 2014 College Plank released data from the earlier ten years of AP exams. College Table found that 33. 2% of public high school teachers from the class of 2013 had taken an AP exam, compared to 18. 9% in 2003. In 2013 20. 1% of teachers who had considered an AP test achieved a several or higher compared to 12. 2% in 2003.
Criticism [ change ]
Decreasing top quality [ edit ]
Self-employed educational researchers began to question whether AP could preserve high educational standards although experiencing forceful growth.  Research has shown that the most well-liked AP assessments tend to have the minimum passing rates, a possible indicator that fewer academically prepared students are enrolling in AP > Whether the AP program may serve more and more students without decreasing educational rigor is actually a matter of issue within the education field.  
Passing scores and university credit [ edit ]
College or university faculty, including former mentor and senior high school teacher Steve Tierney, have expressed questions about the importance of a moving AP credit score.  College students who receive scores of 3 or 4 are getting given college or university credit for fewer educational institutions. [when ever?] Academic departments also criticise the increasing proportion of college students who take and pass AP courses but are not really ready for college-level work. 
Academic achievements [ edit ]
Independent researchers in education have since 2010 studied the impact of the Advanced Placement program on students’ academic achievements. An early analyze published inAP: A critical study of the Advanced Placement programidentified that learners who took AP classes in the sciences yet failed the AP exam performed simply no better in college technology courses than students without any AP course at all. Referring to students who have complete the course although fail the exam, the head specialist, Phillip M. Sadler, stated in an interview that “research implies that they avoid appear to have discovered anything in the past year, so there may be probably a much better course to get them”. 
Two various other studies in comparison non-AP students with AP students who had not considered their course’s AP exam, had used the AP exam although d > The largest study on this sort, which has a sample size of over 85, 000, duplicated these results and also confirmed that non-AP students performed with equal levels of educational achievement because AP pupils who deb > This led the writers to state that AP engagement “. is definitely not good for students who merely sign up for the classes. ” #@@#@!: p. 414